|Glossary of Terms|
This section is for you to search for word and term definitions that may not be commonly heard outside of the health and social care arena. They may or may not appear on this site or the main Afiya website, but you may have come across them. The terminology definitions below are specifically relevant to the health and social care context.
(BME Health) Advocacy – Supporting, speaking up for, promoting and at times speaking on behalf of BME patients/service users (see definition below) in relation to their health and social care rights. Advocacy is also a process in which people receiving services are provided with information and tools for self empowerment in their health and social care decisions.
Benchmarking – Used to define standards of excellence, best practice and competencies based on a variety of criteria. This can be done through studying research in the relative field, consultation with similar organisations, looking at existing quality standards.
Commissioning - The process by which service providers (see below for definition), decide to spend their resources on providing appropriate and cost effective services for local populations in order to enhance their quality of life. Services can be brought in from relevant private companies/third sector organisations. This is the ‘how and why’ the service provider will make their decisions in order to then procure. See also ‘Procurement’
Core Funding – The financial resources necessary for the basic sustained running of an organisation. Including salaries, office costs, equipment, I.T etc
G.P consortia – A new role for GPs, to replace primary care/PCT (see definitions below) commissioning functions. GP clusters will be in charge of budgets and commissioning of services for their patients. (With a few exceptions including: dentistry, community pharmacy and primary ophthalmic services) This change is part of the Coalition government’s goal of providing patient choice with GPs being on the frontline of representing their patients’ best interests. It is envisaged that GP consortia will work with local authorities and the private and voluntary sector bodies to buy in services.
Grassroots communities– The voice, input and power of local communities in health and social care decisions. It is important to have your finger on the pulse of what locals are thinking and how this thinking can influence national and local policy and decision making. A valuable section of society that can be consulted on, for service development and delivery. Grassroot communities can often be found organised through local networks, organisations and community centres.
Health watch – A new independent national body with the power to monitor the NHS and to refer patients’ concerns to a wide range of authorities. It will represent the interests of patients as consumers, in strategic commissioning, pursue and refer patient complaints, contribute to national public debate on the NHS.
Health Inequalities - The avoidable and unjust differences in health status of certain population groups’. (Institute of Public Health, 2010)
Local Authority – Local council. These will now have greater say in the provision of public health messages and campaigns (see definition below), as well as in provision of social care services.
Mapping Exercise – Methodical review of particular issues/subject areas within a local area in order to design and develop effective interventions. E.g Mapping local demography/age range/social economic status (see definition below) in order to design appropriate local stroke prevention services
National Commissioning Board – Will be set up as part of the restructuring of primary care. The NHS Commissioning Board will provide national leadership for quality improvement through commissioning. It will help standardise best practice through commissioning guidelines, designing model contracts, tariff and financial incentive models and involving users They will have a number of duties including:
Further information on the commissioning boards will follow once details are finalised.
Outputs – Agreed work delivered as part of a project or core plan that can be measured and evaluated for competency and effectiveness
Outcomes – The effect and results recorded as a (direct) result of work delivered as part of a project or core plan that can be measured and evaluated for competency and effectiveness.
Primary Care – The collective term for services provided at local community level such as GPs, pharmacies and dentists. They play a central role in the health and wellbeing of local communities.
Procurement – The actual buying in of appropriate goods/services which are cost effective and provide the best quality outcomes for service users. Effective procurement needs effective commissioning guidelines as well as a transparent and open process in which to apply to provide services and goods.
Public Health – The focus of public health is the prevention of illness and the promotion of health and well being. Public health traditionally sits within primary care health and must take into account the complex issues which can affect a person’s health and wellbeing in order to design effective interventions. Some public health messages have been delivered at national level such as Change4life and the anti smoking messages.
Public Sector Duties – These cover race, disability and gender and are legally enforceable duties on all public bodies including local authorities and hospitals, and organisations that provide services on behalf of these public bodies such as the voluntary sector. The duties state ‘due regard’ needs to be taken into account in relation to race, disability and gender equality. The new Equality Act 2010 will bring together these duties, add more protected groups to be covered and enforce them in 2011. Till then the existing duties remain in force.
“The legislative framework has two main components: the general duty and the specific duties. The general duty sets out the main objectives of each of the duties, whilst the specific duties are the steps that public bodies have to take to help them to meet the general duty.” EHRC website
Service Provider – An organisation, body or business that provides services to the public. In the context of health and social care, these services can be commissioned by local authorities, PCTs (and GP consortia in the future). The actual providers can vary from local organisations to large private firms and are often found on approved lists of suppliers of goods and services.
Service User – In this context, an individual who accesses/ed a service to improve their health and wellbeing, or as part of social care.
Social Care – A wide range of services provided by local authorities and independent organisations to improve quality of life of the elderly and those with special needs. This can include services such as ‘meals on wheels’, home care and assistance, care home and day centre facilities. Social Determinants of Health – The social factors that can affect the health of an individual such as housing, employment, income, education, family etc. According to the World Health Organisation ‘The social determinants of health are mostly responsible for health inequities - the unfair and avoidable differences in health status seen within and between countries’. Recognising social determinants of health are an integral part of developing health initiatives and interventions.
Socio-economic status – Looking at an individual’s/family’s social and economic background to categorise them based on these variables. Status is then based on the person’s education, income occupation. This process may also look at family history of these variables to look at patterns of socio-economic status. The process is often used within the health context to look at the correlation between health and socio-economic status to investigate inequalities.
Social Marketing – “Social marketing is the systematic application of marketing alongside other concepts and techniques to achieve specific behavioural goals, for a social good” French J,Blair-Stevens C. Social marketing works!.National Social Marketing Centre (2006)
Social Media – This is an umbrella term for communication and social interaction through online formats such as Facebook, Twitter, You tube, online blogs, LinkedIn etc. Social media is increasingly being used by companies and organisations to encourage participation and engagement with their readership/members/general public.
Stakeholders – An organisation/ individual that have a vested interest in the work you are doing and is often consulted on and can have an influence or be influenced by the outcomes of a project.
Statutory Sector – Organisations and departments created and funded by governments. This includes
Third Sector – This is an umbrella term used for organisations that are non- governmental, are ‘value’ driven, not for profit gain and sit between the governmental (statutory) and private sector. Third sector organisations are often specialist service providers and include voluntary groups, charities, community groups, faith organisations, social enterprises and co-operatives.
Voluntary Sector – It is implied when using the term ‘voluntary sector’ that it benefits to a degree on the work of unpaid volunteers. This is not necessarily the case as the term is often used alongside ‘Third Sector’ to have the same meaning.
White Paper (Government) - A parliamentary paper articulating government policy and proposed action to be turned into law. A white paper is often used as a consultation on proposed new legislation before a law is actually introduced.
BME/BAME/BMER– Black and Minority Ethnic, Black Asian and Minority Ethnic, Black Minority Ethnic and Refugee.
CDW – Community Development Worker - worker whose job it is to build bridges between local mental health services and the BME communities they serve, and help communities to have more say in the sort of services they receive.
DH/DoH – Department of Health
DWP – Department for Work and Pensions – Government department in charge of welfare and employment issues.
EHRC – Equality and Human Rights commission – Independent statutory body set up to eliminate discrimination, reduce inequality, protect human rights and build good relations. Created out of the former Commission for Racial Equality (CRE), the Disability Rights Commission (DRC) and the Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC).
E and D – Equality and Diversity
HuB – A central meeting place for a collection of different but complementary groups/organisations under one roof/space for purposes of sharing space, knowledge, and facilities.
LGBT - Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender
LINks – Local Involvement Networks – made up of individuals and community groups, such as faith groups and residents' associations, working together to improve health and social care services. These will eventually be replaced by local ‘Health Watch’ (see above)
MP – Member of Parliament
MEP – Member of the European Parliament
NGO – Non Governmental Organisation
NMHDU – National Mental Health Development Unit - provides national support for implementing mental health policy
OCN – Open College Network
PCT – Primary Care Trust which will gradually be replaced by GP consortia. The commissioning function will be shared alongside the National commissioning board, local authorities and GP consortia.
Quango – An acronym for ‘Quasi-Autonomous Non-Governmental Organisation’. These are part of central government but operate at arm’s length from it. Many of these were listed to close by the current government in October 2010 such as the Audit commission in what was referred to in the media as ‘bonfire of the quangos’
S.W.O. T analysis – Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats when planning a project http://www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/corpstrtgy/general/swot-analysis.htm
National Voices - a coalition of national health and social care organisations, independent of government, coming together to ensure a stronger voice for all those who come into contact with the NHS and care services, and the voluntary organisations that help them. Afiya Trust is a member of National Voices http://www.nationalvoices.org.uk/
NCVO – National Council for Voluntary Organisations – Afiya Trust is a member http://www.ncvo-vol.org.uk/
CEMVO - Council of Ethnic Minority Voluntary Organisations http://www.cemvo.org.uk/
NICE – National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - NICE is an independent organisation responsible for providing national guidance on promoting good health and preventing and treating ill health
NIMHE – National Institute for Mental Health in England - to help the mental health system implement the National Service Framework for Mental Health and the NHS Plan.